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Data sent from the Smart Card to the receiver or programmer that contains information necessary for proper communication with the Smart Card.
If you read a card and receive an error message "Invalid ATR" This means your card is looped.
The earliest versions you had to remove the chip and program with a separate programmer.
The wafer is another version; these use a separate programmer that has a slot for the AVR to be inserted in.
This system also carries long distance voice and data services throughout Canada as well as some transborder service to the U. Depending on their use and operating frequency, antennas can take the form of a single piece of wire, a di-pole a grid such as a yagi array, a horn, a helix, a sophisticated parabolic-shaped dish, or a phase array of active electronic elements of virtually any flat or convoluted surface.
Aperture A cross sectional area of the antenna which is exposed to the satellite signal.
Atmega Newer generation of chip used in AVR like devices called Atmega 128 boards.
Apogee The point in an elliptical satellite orbit which is farthest from the surface of the earth.
Geosynchronous satellites which maintain circular orbits around the earth are first launched into highly elliptical orbits with apogees of 22,237 miles.
When the communication satellite reaches the appropriate apogee, a rocket motor is fired to place the satellite into its permanent circular orbit of 22,237 miles.
Apogee Kick Motor (AKM)Rocket motor fired to circulate orbit and deploy satellite into geostationary orbit.It provides regional telecommunications services for the Middle East region.Asia Sat A satellite system covering the Asia mainland.Attenuation The loss in power of electromagnetic signals between transmission and reception points.